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A Complete List Of Important Amendments in the Indian Constitution !!

Amendments of the Indian Constitution – What is Article 368?

To define constitutional amendment process, Article 368 of Part XX of Indian Constitution provides for two types of amendments.

  1. By a special majority of Parliament
  2. by a special majority of the Parliament with the ratification by half of the total states

But, some other articles provide for the amendment of certain provisions of the Constitution by a simple majority of Parliament, that is, a majority of the members of each House present and voting (similar to the ordinary legislative process). Notably, these amendments are not deemed to be amendments of the Constitution for the purposes of Article 368.

A brief description of the above types of amendments of the Indian Constitution has been laid down below.

1. By Simple Majority of Parliament

A number of provisions in the Constitution can be amended by a simple majority of the two houses of Parliament outside the scope of Article 368.

These provisions include:

  • Admission or establishment of new states.
  • Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing states.
  • Abolition or creation of legislative councils in states.
  • Second Schedule-emoluments,
  • Allowances, privileges and so on of the president, the governors, the Speakers, judges, etc.
  • Quorum in Parliament.
  • Salaries and allowances of the members of Parliament.
  • Rules of procedure in Parliament.
  • Privileges of the Parliament, its members and its committees.
  • Use of the English language in Parliament.
  • Number of puisne judges in the Supreme Court.
  • Conferment of more jurisdiction on the Supreme Court.
  • Conferment of more jurisdiction on the Supreme Court.
  • Citizenship-acquisition and termination.
  • Elections to Parliament and state legislatures.
  • Delimitation of constituencies.
  • Union territories
  • Fifth Schedule-administration of scheduled areas and scheduled tribes.
  • Sixth Schedule-administration of tribal areas.

2. By Special Majority of Parliament

  • The majority of the provisions in the Constitution need to be amended by a special majority of the Parliament, that is, a majority (that is, more than 50 percent) of the total membership of each House and a majority of two-thirds of the members of each House present and voting
  • . The expression ‘total membership’ means the total number of members comprising the House irrespective of the fact whether there are vacancies or absentees.
  • The special majority is required only for voting at the third reading stage of the bill but by way of abundant caution, the requirement for the special majority has been provided for in the rules of the Houses in respect of all the effective stages of the bill.
  • The provisions which can be amended by this way include: (i) Fundamental Rights; (ii) Directive Principles of State Policy; and (iii) All other provisions which are not covered by the first and third categories.

3. By Special Majority of Parliament and Consent of States

Those provisions of the Constitution which are related to the federal structure of the polity can be amended by a special majority of the Parliament and also with the consent of half of the state legislatures by a simple majority.

If one or some or all the remaining states take no action on the bill, it does not matter; the moment half of the states give their consent, the formality is completed.

There is no time limit within which the states should give their consent to the bill.

The following provisions can be amended in this way:

  • Election of the President and its manner.
  • Extent of the executive power of the Union and the states.
  • Supreme Court and high courts.
  • Distribution of legislative powers between
  • the Union and the states.
  • Any of the lists in the Seventh Schedule.
  • Representation of states in Parliament.
  • Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and its procedure (Article 368 itself).

Important Amendments of the Indian Constitution

Important Amendment ActsNewly added, removed and Amended Articles/Scheduled/PartsDetails of the Amendments
7th Amendment Act 1956

Article 1

Article 3

Article 49

Article 80

Article 81

Article 82

Article 131

Article 153

Article 158

Article 168

Article 170

Article 171

Article 216

Article 217

Article 220

Article 222

Article 224

Article 230

Article 231

Article 232

Part VIII

First, Second, Fourth and Seventh Schedules of Indian Constitution

Reorganisation of states on linguistic basis

 

Abolition of Class A, B, C and D states

Introduction of Union Territories

 

9th Amendment Act, 1960Schedule 1 of Indian ConstitutionAdjustments to Indian Territory as a result of an agreement with Pakistan.
10th Amendment Act,  1961

Article 240

First Schedule

Dadra, Nagar, and Haveli incorporated in the Union of Indian as a Union Territory
12th Amendment Act 1961

Article 240

First Schedule

Goa, Daman and Diu incorporated in the Indian Union as a Union Territory
13th Amendment Act, 1963

Article 170

Added new article 371A

Nagaland was formed with special status under Article 371A
14th Amendment Act, 1962

Articles 81 and 240

First and fourth Schedules

Added Article 239A

Pondicherry incorporated into the Indian Union
21st Amendment Act, 1967Eighth ScheduleSindhi language was language into 8th Schedule of Indian Constitution
26th Amendment Act 1971

Article 366

Added Article 363A

Removed Articles 291 and 362

Privy Purse was abolished.
36th Amendment Act 40th Amendment Act 1975

Articles 80 and 81

First and fourth Schedules

Added Article 371F

Removed Article 2A

Sikkim incorporated as an Indian state
42nd Amendment Act 1976

Article 31

Article 31C

Article 39

Article 55

Article 74

Article 77

Article 81

Article 82

Article 83

Article 100

Article 102

Article 103

Article 105

Article 118

Article 145

Article 150

Article 166

Article 170

Article 172

Article 189

Article 191

Article 192

Article 194

Article 208

Article 217

Article 225

Article 226

Article 227

Article 228

Article 311

Article 312

Article 330

Article 352

Article 353

Article 356

Article 357

Article 358

Article 359

Article 366

Article 368

Article 371F

Seventh Schedule

Added Articles 31D, 32A, 39A, 43A, 48A, 131A, 139A, 144A, 226A, 228A and 257A

Added Parts IVA and XIVA

Fundamental Duties prescribed, India became Socialist Secular Republic
44th Amendment Act 1978

Article19

Article 22

Article 30

Article 31A

Article 31C

Article 38

Article 71

Article 74

Article 77

Article 83

Article 103

Article 105

Article 123

Article 132

Article 133

Article 134

Article 139A

Article 150

Article 166

Article 172

Article 192

Article 194

Article 213

Article 217

Article 225

Article 226

Article 227

Article 239B

Article 329

Article 352

Article 356

Article 358

Article 359

Article 360

Article 371F

Ninth Schedule

Added Articles 134A and 361A

Deletion of Articles 31, 257A and 329A

Right to Property removed from the list of fundamental rights
61st Amendment Act 1989Article 326Voting age decreased from 21 to 18.
71st Amendment Act 1992Article 332Manipuri, Konkani, and Nepali were added in the 8th Schedule of Indian Constitution
73rd Amendment Act 1992Added Part IX

Introduction of Panchayat Raj

Addition of Part IX to the Indian Constitution

74th Amendment Act  1992

Article 280 Article 280

Added Part IXA

Introduction of Municipalities and Nagarpalikas
86th Amendment Act 2002

Amended Articles 45 and 51A

Added Article 21A

Free and compulsory education to children between 6 and 14 years
88th Amendment Act 2003Added Article 268AService tax levied by Union and collected and appropriated by the Union and the States
92nd Amendment Act 2003Eighth ScheduleSanthali, Bodo, Dogri, and Maithili in the 8th Schedule of Indian Constitution
95th Amendment Act 2010Article 334

Extension of reservation of seats for SC/ST

Nomination of Anglo-Indian members in Parliament and State Assemblies

96th Amendment Act 2011Eighth ScheduleReplaced Odia for Oriya in the 8th Schedule to the Indian Constitution
97th Amendment Act 2012

 Articles 19

Added Part IXB

Introduction of Part IXB in the Constitution of India relating to Co-operative Societies
100th Amendment Act 2015Amendment of First Schedule

Exchange of some enclave territories with Bangladesh

 

Conferment of citizenship rights to citizens of enclave’s resulting to signing of Land Boundary Agreement (LBA) Treaty between India and Bangladesh.

101st Amendment Act 2016

Article 248

Article 249

Article 250

Article 268

Article 269

Article 270

Article 271

Article 286

Article 366

Article 368

Amended Sixth Schedule and Seventh Schedule

Deletion of Article 268A

Introduction of Goods and Services Tax (GST)
102nd Amendment Act 2018

Addition of articles 338B, 342A, and Added Clause 26C

Omitted Article 340

Modification of articles 338, 366

Constitutional Status to National Commission for Backward Classes
103rd Amendment Act 2019

Amendment to Article 15, added Clause 6

 

Amendment to Article 16, added Clause 6

A maximum of 10% Reservation for Economically Weaker Sections of citizens of classes other than the classes mentioned in clauses (4) and (5) of Article 15, i.e. Classes other than socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes.

 

The 42nd amendment was the most comprehensive amendment which had 59 clauses and carried out so many changes that it has been described as a "Mini Constitution".
The 52nd amendment was the only amendment to be unanimously adopted by the Parliament.
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